Cervical cancer is a medical condition exclusive to females. Typical of all cancers, cervical cancer is also caused by excessive growth of cells either on the cervix camera or in any remote organ. Though the rate of cervical cancer cases has steadily gone down due to easy access to screening and vaccines, it still takes a significant toll on lives in developing countries, including India. The majority of cervical cancers are caused when a female comes in sexual contact or skin to skin contact with someone infected by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The other risk factors include multiple sexual partners, prolonged use of birth control pills and smoking.

Over 100 types of HPVs are known to us but only select types are associated with cancers while the rest leads to the formation of non-malignant warts on the skin or genitals. In addition to cervical cancer, the cancerous HPVs can also lead to cancers of the penis in men, along with cancers of the anus, mouth and throat in both genders. The symptoms of cervical cancer include unexplained vaginal bleeding, abnormal vaginal discharge and prolonged bleeding in the post-menopause scenario, together with constant pain during intercourse, excessive discharge and pain in the pelvic region. As cervical cancer treatment gives better patient outcomes if detected early, you need medical help when any of the symptoms persist for a prolonged period.

At Nepal Cancer Hospital and Research Centre,  the best cervical cancer treatment center in Nepal, we continue to provide Gynae Oncology services with complete commitment and compassion to anyone presenting with gynecological cancer or pre-cancer. We are well-served by a team of seasoned and qualified Gynecologic Oncologists that puts the best foot forward to manage cancers in proficient and scientifically proven ways. Our experts stay at the top of the latest breakthroughs in Gynae oncology and implement the relevant ones for better patient outcomes. We stand by the patient right through the journey, providing consultations, screenings, clinical staging and treatments as per the disease status.

We bring forth a range of OPD services for accurate diagnosis and treatment for cervical cancer. Our frequently requested OPD services may include PAP smear, HPV testing, including high-risk mRNA E6, E7, Colposcopy and directed biopsies and Endometrial aspiration, along with Antiseptic dressings, catheter and stoma care. Cervical biopsies and smears like vault smear and vulvar smear are also readily available. The disease is clinically staged and triaged to determine the further course of action. Since we use technology and human competence across all OPD services, patients can anticipate accurate screening outcomes at all times.

We are up for minor and major incision based modalities when it comes to the treatment for cervical cancer. Our Minor OT procedures include Biopsies like vulvar biopsy, cervical biopsy and vaginal wall biopsy, resuturing and antiseptic dressing for all reconstructive surgeries, along with Cryocautery and electrocautery for pre-invasive cervical lesions (CIN I, CIN II) or persistent cervical erosions. Moreover, we have state of the art operation suites for all major Gynae oncological surgeries, such as Open Surgeries & Laparoscopic Surgeries .

Given below are the most common types of cervical cancer symptoms:

  • Vaginal bleeding after sex
  • Vaginal bleeding after menopause
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Spotting or bleeding between periods
  • Heavier or longer heavier menstrual periods than the usual
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Other abnormal vaginal discharge

Many initial symptoms may coincide with other reproductive conditions, making it harder to spot the issue early on.

Following are the most common risk factors associated with cervical cancer:

  • Tobacco smoking
  • Overweight
  • HIV infection
  • Current or Past Chlamydia infection
  • Immune system suppression
  • Long-term administration of oral contraceptives
  • Having more than three full-term pregnancies
  • Being pregnant before the age of 17
  • Living in unhygienic conditions
  • The family history of cervical cancer

If there is suspicion of cervical cancer, the doctor will suggest you the examination of  cervix with the help of special magnifying instrument called colposcope. The procedure is called colposcopy for checking abnormal cell growth in the area.

In this procedure, doctor will take a sample of cervical cells for biopsy or laboratory testing.

To obtain the tissue, the doctor can make use of:

  • Punch biopsy that is done using a sharp tool for pinching off the sample cells from cervical tissue.
  • Endocervical curettage that requires a small, spoon-shaped curet for scraping off a tissue sample from cervix.

In case the punch biopsy or endocervical curettage seems to be worrisome, the physician is likely to perform the following tests:

  • Cone biopsy: It is a technique for letting a doctor obtain deeper layers of cervical cells for biopsy. It is done under the influence of general anesthesia.
  • Electrical wire loop: In this technique, a thin, low-voltage electrical wire is used for obtaining a small tissue sample. It is done under local anesthesia.STAGES OF CERVICAL CANCE
  • Stage 0: In this stage, abnormal cervical cells are only present on the surface of the cervix in form of CIN 3. This stage, however, is not included in the FIGO system, as referred to as carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • Stage I: In this stage, a small number of tumours are present but have not spread to any tissue, lymph nodes, organs or distant body parts.
  • Stage II: In this stage, the tumour begins to spread beyond the cervix and uterus. However, it has not invaded lower parts of the vagina or the pelvic walls.
  • Stage III: In this stage, the cancer cells grow into the pelvic walls and even invade the lower part of the vagina. Now, the tumour also blocks ureter tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. However, there is no spreading of the tumour to the other body parts.
  • Stage IV: It is the last or the most advanced stage of cancer. In this stage, cancer invades other parts of the body, including, bladder, rectum and other distant body parts.
  • Some common types of treatment options involve Surgery, Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy.Different types of doctors are involved in treating this condition:
    • Gynecologic oncologist: A surgeon who specializes in curing female related cancers by surgical procedures.
    • Radiation oncologist uses radiation therapy for treating different types of cancer, including cervical cancer.
    • Medical oncologist uses chemotherapy and other procedures like targeted therapies for treating cervical cancer.

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