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TYPES OF CANCER

Cancers are classified according to where in the body they occur. Worldwide, skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in both men and women while the second most common cancer for men is prostate cancer and breast cancer for women.

We offer excellent programs for the treatment of common and rare cancers, with highly specialized teams of experts, and the latest technology focused on various types of cancer. Here is an overview of the cancers we treat every day at National Cancer Hospital, arranged alphabetically.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer typically affects women but can also occur in men. Breast cancer begins when cells in the breast deform into a mass of abnormal cells called a tumor. A tumor can be benign which means it won't spread to other parts of the body, or cancerous which means that it can spread through blood vessels and lymph vessels to other parts of the body.

Commonly, breast cancer spreads to nearby lymph nodes, but it can also spread to other areas in the body such as the bones, liver, lungs, and brain. Breast cancer can come back after initial treatment- it can recur locally in the breast or regional lymph nodes, or it can recur somewhere else in the body which is called a metastatic recurrence.

Nepal Cancer Hospital offers the latest technologies to screen for breast cancer. We run preventive programs in the community, focused on screening yourself for breast cancer.

Our advanced screening tools such as digital mammograms [link to diagnosis and screening page link for digital mammograms] and ultrasonography [link], are complemented by our experienced oncologists with a track record of success in helping patients beat cancer. Our surgical oncologists also have deep experience in mastectomy, as well as breast reconstruction following surgery.

You can also download our guide to self-screening for breast cancer, HERE.

To make an appointment for a digital mammogram, or a full breast cancer screening package, please call the Breast Clinic at: 977-1-5251312

Brain Tumor

A collection of abnormal cells in your brain is called a brain tumor. They can be cancerous or benign. Primary brain tumors are localized in the brain, whereas secondary brain tumors can spread to other parts of your body. Any abnormal growth inside the skull can be dangerous or life threatening.

Diagnosis of brain tumors are usually done through MRI in our radiology department. Your tailored treatment plan is worked out by a multidisciplinary team of experts in our hospital, and can be a combination of treatments including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and hormone therapy.

Blood cancers

Blood cancers start in your bone marrow where blood is produced. In most blood cancers, the normal blood cell development process is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. These abnormal blood cells, or cancerous cells, prevent your blood from performing many of its functions, like fighting off infections or preventing serious bleeding. There are three main types of blood cancers.

- Leukemia is caused by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells impairing the blood's ability to fight infection, and to produce red blood cells and platelets.

- Lymphoma  affects the lymphatic system, which removes excess fluids from your body and produces immune cells. Abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells, which multiply and collect in your lymph nodes and other tissues impairing your immune system.

- Myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells that prevents the normal production of antibodies, leaving your body's immune system weakened and susceptible to infection.

Our hematologists are experts in common and rare blood disorders, and we are equipped with advanced laboratory and transfusion facilities that can help you diagnose and treat blood cancers. Contact our Department of Hematology for more information.

Gastro-Intestinal Cancers

Gastro-Intestinal (GI) cancer is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system. This includes cancers of the oesophagus, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, bowel (large intestine or colon and rectum), and anus.

GI cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer, and we are well set up to diagnose and treat these group of cancers.

We are equipped with the Full Endoscopic Suite capable of upper GI endoscopy and lower GI endoscopy, as well as bronchoscopy, direct naso-pharyngeal laryngoscopy, video assisted thoracoscopy.

Genitourinary Cancers

Genitourinary cancers are cancers that affect the reproductive organs and the urinary system. The major genitourinary cancers are prostate cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, and bladder cancer.

Prostate Cancer: This is a common cancer associated with men. Our annual health-checkup package [LINK] for men will also perform prostate cancer screening for men.

Gynecologic Cancers

Gynecologic cancer is an uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the reproductive organs. There are several types of gynecologic cancers- cervical, gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), primary peritoneal, ovarian, uterine/endometrial, vaginal and vulvar cancers.

Head and Neck Cancer

Cancers that begin inside the mouth, the nose, the throat, or other moist, “squamous cells” inside the head and neck areas are called head and neck cancers. These cancers are further categorized by the area of the head or neck in which they begin. Some typical head and neck cancers occur in the oral cavity, throat (pharynx), voicebox (larynx), or nasal cavity (including sinuses). These cancers can also occur in the salivary glands. The biggest risk factors for head and neck cancers are alcohol and tobacco use.

At Nepal Cancer Hospital, we have a team of experts that have experience treating head and neck cancers of all stages.

Lung and Thoracic Cancers

Thoracic cancer is cancer of the lungs or the chest cavity. Our teams of physicians provide expert care in all types of thoracic cancer. Lung cancer is the most common type of thoracic cancer, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths.

Our specialists have expertise in treating all cancers of the chest, including the following:

- Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

- Small Cell Lung Cancer

- Esophageal Cancer

- Mesothelioma

- Metastatic cancers to the chest

- Thymic Tumors

Skin Cancer

Most skin cancers are locally destructive growth of the skin. They originate from the cells of the epidermis. The majority of skin cancers do not spread to other parts of the body. Three major types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Other rarer forms of skin cancer are lymphomas, sarcomas, hair and sweat gland tumors.

Bone Cancer

Bone cancer is a malignant tumor of the bone that destroys normal bone tissue. However, non-cancerous bone tumors are more common than malignant ones. Both malignant and benign bone tumors may grow and compress healthy bone tissue. Bone cancers can be primary bone cancers, which begin in the bone tissue, or they can be metastatic, spreading to other parts of the body.

 

  2018-04-04